Agricultureย orย farmingย is the practice of cultivatingย plantsย andย livestock.[1]ย Agriculture was the key development in the rise ofย sedentaryย human civilization, whereby farming ofย domesticatedย species created foodย surplusesย that enabled people to live in cities. Theย history of agricultureย began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs, sheep, and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world.ย Industrial agricultureย based on large-scaleย monocultureย in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended onย subsistence agriculture.